First published by Euractiv

One hot spring afternoon in Malta, a journalist drove up to her house to find a court marshall duct-taping hundreds of sheets of paper to her front gate. Her family’s two guard dogs were barking uncontrollably and snapped at the marshall through the bars of the gate, but he was determined. The orders from the court were that the journalist, Daphne Caruana Galizia, must be served with 19 defamation lawsuits filed against her, in one go, by a wealthy and powerful business figure. A few months later she was dead, murdered by a remotely-triggered car bomb.

We are a group of civil society organisations that consider this to be the most egregious case of SLAPPs we have seen so far, aggravated by the fact that the cases have continued after Caruana Galizia’s death against her widower and three sons. “SLAPP” stands for Strategic Lawsuit against Public Participation. It’s a form of legal harassment designed to intimidate critical voices into silence. Expensive and unscrupulous law firms market this attack-dog service to powerful and wealthy individuals who can afford to drag on abusive proceedings for years just to shield themselves from unwanted public scrutiny.

This scrutiny is the lifeblood of healthy democratic societies. The European Court of Human Rights and other national and regional courts have consistently and explicitly recognised in their judgments the important role a free press, and more broadly civil society, plays in holding the powerful to account. Their judgments reaffirm the obligation states have to create an environment that is conducive to free speech. Because without this, democracy weakens and dies.

The holes in our laws that allow powerful people to hammer their critics into submission are a hole in European democracy. Cases of abuse pepper the continent. Poland’s second-biggest daily newspaper, Gazeta Wyborcza, has received over 55 legal threats and lawsuits by a number of actors, including from Poland’s ruling party, since 2015. French businessman Vincent Bolloré and companies affiliated with the Bollore Group have blanketed journalists and NGOs in libel suits to stop them covering his business interests in Africa. In Spain, meat producer Coren is demanding €1 million in damages from an environmental activist for criticising its waste management practices, having previously threatened activists and scientists who were researching nitrate levels in its local waters.

The people we depend on for information about what is happening around us are being distracted, impeded, or entirely blocked from pursuing their work by these costly and resource-intensive legal attacks. The situation is becoming skewed beyond recognition. When it comes to certain people, governments, companies and topics, it’s not writers, film makers or journalists who decide what we read, watch and talk about. It’s not even the courts, for SLAPPs rarely make it to a hearing, let alone a court judgment. Rather, it’s the oligarchs and their associates in politics, through the lawyers they pay, who are shaping the narrative and preventing the truth from emerging.

We’ve seen a worrying pattern emerge in Europe of government officials or beneficiaries of large public contracts adopting the tactics of celebrities and oligarchs to shield themselves from the heightened level of scrutiny that their positions or financial links to government warrant. The fact that the threats are often cross-border ratchets up the costs for journalists and activists, who find themselves summoned to court far from home in Europe’s most expensive legal jurisdictions.

Awareness of this problem is growing. European Commission Vice-President Věra Jourová has promised to “look into all possible options” to counter the threat SLAPPs pose to European democracy. One promising solution lies in the institutions of the European Union, and it could help realter the balance between pursuers of SLAPPs and the public’s right to be informed of matters in the public interest.

EU-wide legislation should be adopted to protect people across the European Union from SLAPPs. This has to be a priority.  As in other parts of the world, rules should be in place across the EU to allow SLAPP suits to be dismissed at an early stage of proceedings, to sanction SLAPP litigants for abusing the law and the courts, and to provide measures to allow victims to defend themselves. When we consider the importance of public watchdogs such as investigative journalists, activists, and whistleblowers to the rule of law and the fight against corruption, the absence of safeguards is a threat not only to press freedom but to the proper functioning of  Europe’s internal market and, increasingly, to Europe’s democratic life.

The reality is that for every journalist or activist threatened with violence in Europe, a hundred more are silenced discreetly by letters sent by law firms, perverting laws meant to protect the reputations of the innocent from attacks by the powerful. SLAPPs are a far less barbaric means of silencing someone than a car bomb or a bullet to the head, but their silencing effect is often just as destructive.

Access Info Europe
Associated Whistleblowing Press /Fíltrala
Blueprint for Free Speech
Centre for Free Expression (CFE)
CEE Bankwatch Network
Chceme zdravú krajinu
Citizens Network Watchdog Poland
Civil Liberties Union For Europe
Civil Rights Defenders (CRD)
Civil Society Europe
Clean Air Action Group
Climaxi, Filip De Bodt
Committee to Protect Journalists
Common Weal
Corporate Europe Observatory
Defend Democracy
Earth League International
Environmental Paper Network (EPN)
Estonian Forest Aid (Eesti Metsa Abiks)
ePaństwo Foundation
Eurocadres – Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff
European Center For Not-For-Profit Law (ECNL)
European Centre for Press and Media Freedom  (ECPMF)
European Coalition for Corporate Justice (ECCJ)
European Environmental Bureau (EEB)
European Federation of Journalists (EFJ)
European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU)
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
FIDH (International Federation for Human Rights)
Forest Initiatives and Communities (Ukraine)
Forum Ökologie & Papier
Four Paws International
Free Press Unlimited (FPU)
Friends of the Earth Europe
Friends of the Earth Netherlands
Global Forum for Media Development (GFMD)
Global Justice Ecology Project
Government Accountability Project
Greenpeace EU Unit
Human Rights House Foundation (HRHF)
Human Rights Without Frontiers
IGM  – Institute of Maltese Journalists
Index on Censorship
Institute for Sustainable Development Foundation
International Media Support, Gulnara Akhundova
International Partnership for Human Rights (IPHR)
International Press Institute (IPI)
Iraqi Journalists Right Defence Association
Justice and Environment
Justice Pesticides
Maison des Lanceurs d’Alerte
Media Defence
Mighty Earth
Netherlands Helsinki Committee
Nuclear Consulting Group (NCG)
OBC Transeuropa
OGM dangers
Oživení (Czech Republic)
Pištaljka (Serbia)
Polish Institute for Human Rights and Business
Polish Ecological Club Mazovian Branch
Rettet den Regenwald (Rainforest Rescue)
Reporters Without Borders (RSF)
Sherpa, Franceline Lepany
Sciences Citoyennes
Society for Threatened Peoples (STP)
SOLIDAR and SOLIDAR Foundation
Speakout Speakup Ltd
Stefan Batory Foundation
Strefa Zieleni Foundation
Swedish Union of Journalists
The Daphne Caruana Galizia Foundation
The Good Lobby Italia
The International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT)
The New Federalist
The Signals Network
Transnational Institute
Transparency International
Transparency International EU
Transparency International Ireland
Transparency International Italy
Umweltinstitut München
WeMove Europe
Whistleblower Netzwerk (WBN)
Whistleblowing International Network
Women Engage for a Common Future – WECF International
Young European Federalists (JEF Europe)